Carbon nanotubes improve dye solar cell performance

  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::put() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/embed.php on line 32.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 84.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_performMaintenance() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 97.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 167.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::containsKey() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/Gallery.class on line 914.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 204.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::get() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/Gallery.class on line 914.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 187.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getRequestVariablesNoPrefix() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/embed.php on line 45.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_getRequestVariable() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 289.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 874.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 878.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 293.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 708.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 714.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryEmbed::init() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/solarcellsinfo/dyecell/modules/gallery2/gallery_base.inc on line 101.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::containsKey() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryEmbed.class on line 93.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 204.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryEmbed::_saveState() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryEmbed.class on line 94.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 42.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 43.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 44.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 45.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryModule.class on line 21.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 51.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryPlatform/UnixPlatform.class on line 21.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 97.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getServerVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUrlGenerator.class on line 356.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getServerVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUrlGenerator.class on line 357.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 1381.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getServerVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUrlGenerator.class on line 368.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getServerVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUrlGenerator.class on line 368.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::isEmbedded() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUrlGenerator.class on line 380.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::containsKey() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/Gallery.class on line 914.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 204.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::get() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/Gallery.class on line 914.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 187.
  • : Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::getPluginParameter() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUrlGenerator.class on line 382.
  • : Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 235.
  • : Non-static method GalleryPluginHelper_simple::getParameter() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 237.
  • : Non-static method GalleryPluginHelper_simple::_fetchAllParameters() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryPluginHelper_simple.class on line 221.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::containsKey() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryPluginHelper_simple.class on line 281.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 204.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::getFromDisk() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryPluginHelper_simple.class on line 286.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 274.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::getCachePath() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 281.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::getCacheTuple() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 447.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::put() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryPluginHelper_simple.class on line 290.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 84.
  • : Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/Gallery.class on line 284.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::identifySearchEngine() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GallerySession.class on line 207.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getRequestVariables() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GallerySession.class on line 217.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_getRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 241.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 874.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 878.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 246.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 708.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 714.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::strToLower() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GallerySession.class on line 228.
  • : Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/Gallery.class on line 971.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getServerVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GallerySession.class on line 1242.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 1381.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getRemoteHostAddress() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GallerySession.class on line 1243.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::isTrustedProxy() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 990.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getRequestVariables() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 127.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_getRequestVariable() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 242.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 874.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 878.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 246.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 708.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 714.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 129.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryTranslator::getSupportedLanguageCode() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 131.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryTranslator::getLanguageData() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryTranslator.class on line 398.
  • : Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/Gallery.class on line 525.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::put() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryEmbed.class on line 103.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 84.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryEmbed::isCompatibleWithEmbedApi() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryEmbed.class on line 107.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryEmbed::getApiVersion() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryEmbed.class on line 60.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::isCompatibleWithApi() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryEmbed.class on line 60.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryEmbed::checkActiveUser() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryEmbed.class on line 120.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::containsKey() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryEmbed.class on line 128.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 204.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getRequestVariables() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUrlGenerator.class on line 826.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_getRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 241.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 874.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 878.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_getRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 241.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 874.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 878.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_getRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 241.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 874.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 878.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_getRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 241.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 874.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 878.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 246.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 708.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 714.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 708.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 714.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 708.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 714.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 708.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 714.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::getAllFactoryImplementationIds() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 156.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 152.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::getAllImplementationIds() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 153.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::_getFactoryData() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 214.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::_getSingleton() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 63.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::newFactoryInstanceById() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 163.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 139.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::newInstanceById() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 140.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::_getFactoryData() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 192.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::_getSingleton() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 63.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::newInstance() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 202.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::_getFactoryData() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 141.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::_getSingleton() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 63.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::newFactoryInstanceById() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 163.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 139.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::newInstanceById() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 140.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::_getFactoryData() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 192.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::_getSingleton() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 63.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::newInstance() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 202.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::_getFactoryData() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 141.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::_getSingleton() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 63.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::getPluginBaseDir() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 170.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 176.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/httpauth/classes/HttpAuthPlugin.class on line 21.
  • : Non-static method HttpAuthHelper::getHttpAuth() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/httpauth/classes/HttpAuthPlugin.class on line 40.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getServerVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/httpauth/classes/HttpAuthHelper.class on line 148.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getServerVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/httpauth/classes/HttpAuthHelper.class on line 149.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getServerVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/httpauth/classes/HttpAuthHelper.class on line 150.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getRequestVariables() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/httpauth/classes/HttpAuthHelper.class on line 152.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_getRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 241.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 874.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 878.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 246.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 708.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 714.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getServerVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/httpauth/classes/HttpAuthHelper.class on line 155.
  • : Non-static method HttpAuthHelper::getUser() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/httpauth/classes/HttpAuthPlugin.class on line 42.
  • : Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::fetchAllPluginParameters() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/httpauth/classes/HttpAuthHelper.class on line 182.
  • : Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 251.
  • : Non-static method GalleryPluginHelper_simple::fetchAllParameters() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 253.
  • : Non-static method GalleryPluginHelper_simple::_fetchAllParameters() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryPluginHelper_simple.class on line 243.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::containsKey() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryPluginHelper_simple.class on line 281.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 204.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::getFromDisk() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryPluginHelper_simple.class on line 286.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 274.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::getCachePath() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 281.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::getCacheTuple() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 447.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::put() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryPluginHelper_simple.class on line 290.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 84.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::getAnonymousUserId() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 180.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::getPluginParameter() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 2961.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 236.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryPluginHelper_simple::getParameter() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 238.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryPluginHelper_simple::_fetchAllParameters() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryPluginHelper_simple.class on line 222.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::containsKey() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryPluginHelper_simple.class on line 281.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 204.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::get() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryPluginHelper_simple.class on line 282.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 187.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::loadEntitiesById() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 185.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 2258.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryEntityHelper_simple::loadEntitiesById() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 2259.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::containsKey() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryEntityHelper_simple.class on line 53.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 204.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::getFromDisk() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryEntityHelper_simple.class on line 56.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 274.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::getCachePath() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 281.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::getCacheTuple() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 408.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 288.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUser.class on line 21.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryEntity.class on line 21.
  • strict warning: Declaration of GalleryUser::create() should be compatible with GalleryEntity::create() in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUser.class on line 42.
  • strict warning: Declaration of GalleryUser::save() should be compatible with GalleryEntity::save($postEvent = true, $setAclId = NULL) in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUser.class on line 42.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::put() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryEntityHelper_simple.class on line 95.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 84.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::put() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryEmbed.class on line 133.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 84.
  • : Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/Gallery.class on line 419.
  • : Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryStorage.class on line 30.
  • : mysql_connect(): The mysql extension is deprecated and will be removed in the future: use mysqli or PDO instead in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/lib/adodb/drivers/adodb-mysql.inc.php on line 366.
  • warning: mysql_connect(): Access denied for user 'tamileli_gllr1'@'localhost' (using password: YES) in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/lib/adodb/drivers/adodb-mysql.inc.php on line 366.
  • : Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::error() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryStorage.class on line 226.
  • : Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 2751.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/tamileli/public_html/solarcellsinfo/dyecell/includes/file.inc on line 647.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/tamileli/public_html/solarcellsinfo/dyecell/includes/file.inc on line 647.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/tamileli/public_html/solarcellsinfo/dyecell/includes/file.inc on line 647.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/tamileli/public_html/solarcellsinfo/dyecell/includes/file.inc on line 647.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/tamileli/public_html/solarcellsinfo/dyecell/includes/file.inc on line 647.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/tamileli/public_html/solarcellsinfo/dyecell/includes/file.inc on line 647.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/tamileli/public_html/solarcellsinfo/dyecell/includes/file.inc on line 647.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/tamileli/public_html/solarcellsinfo/dyecell/includes/file.inc on line 647.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/tamileli/public_html/solarcellsinfo/dyecell/includes/file.inc on line 647.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/tamileli/public_html/solarcellsinfo/dyecell/includes/file.inc on line 647.

By kalyan - Posted on 18 September 2008

Source: Dataweek.co.za, 3 September 2008,
Information from Frost & Sullivan Technical Insights

Nanotechnology has paved the way for the introduction or activation of unique characteristics in materials, by enhancing their physical and chemical properties. This core principle has been applied to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by introducing defects that result in improved performance and optimised characteristics needed in other materials. CNTs offer properties such as electrical conductivity, chemical stability, high surface area, and optoelectronic properties that find applications in energy and storage technologies.

To study the effect of introducing CNTs in dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC), researchers from Columbia University and Michigan State University have collaborated to replace the conventional platinum cathode in DSSCs with CNTs. DSSCs are a low-cost solar energy technology consisting of a photosensitive dye that absorbs photons from the sun and converts them to electrical charges which diffuse across the electrolyte to form an electric current. Prior research has resulted in using platinum deposited over transparent conducting oxide (TCO) as a cathode in DSSC to achieve high efficiency cells. However, the degradation of platinum over time poses a significant challenge in identifying the right material to maintain efficiency and operation over time. In this regard, the high conductivity and transparency of CNTs make them a potentially attractive option.

The research was aimed at identifying the responses of catalytic strength, transparency and sheet resistance of CNT films. The researchers deposited CNT films on a conducting substrate inside the cells and then monitored the electrochemical activity. They did this by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of the charge-transfer resistance associated as a function of film transparency and loading. The films were then exposed to ultraviolet-generated ozone, resulting in a dramatic increase of catalytic activity.

This increase was attributed to defects that were introduced by the treatment with ozone. The defects appeared as pits that acted as sites for the chemical reaction, resulting in an increase of the reaction rate by more than 10 times. Conductivity and transparency was measured by varying and depositing CNTs of different sizes on substrates and incorporating them into the cells. This indicated that long nanotubes displayed higher and better conductivity and transparency.

“It shows that carbon nanotubes can be extremely effective catalysts,” said head researcher Jessica Trancik. “It also demonstrates a way in which nanostructuring materials can be used to shift tradeoffs between multiple properties, in order to make inexpensive materials behave in advanced ways. This is critical for the development of climate friendly energy technologies.”

The researchers anticipate the application of this research in DSSCs as well as possibly in batteries, fuel cells, sensors and other electroanalytical devices. The researchers believe that CNTs offer high flexibility and are less prone to cracking than TCO. This would make DSSCs easy to manufacture by roll-to-roll processing and integrate into various configurations.

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