US Patents filed during Jan 2000 -Dec 2006

  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::put() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/embed.php on line 32.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 84.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_performMaintenance() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 97.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 167.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::containsKey() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/Gallery.class on line 914.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 204.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::get() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/Gallery.class on line 914.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 187.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getRequestVariablesNoPrefix() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/embed.php on line 45.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_getRequestVariable() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 289.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 874.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 878.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 293.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 708.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 714.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryEmbed::init() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/solarcellsinfo/dyecell/modules/gallery2/gallery_base.inc on line 101.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::containsKey() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryEmbed.class on line 93.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 204.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryEmbed::_saveState() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryEmbed.class on line 94.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 42.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 43.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 44.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 45.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryModule.class on line 21.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 51.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryPlatform/UnixPlatform.class on line 21.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 97.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getServerVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUrlGenerator.class on line 356.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getServerVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUrlGenerator.class on line 357.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 1381.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getServerVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUrlGenerator.class on line 368.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getServerVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUrlGenerator.class on line 368.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::isEmbedded() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUrlGenerator.class on line 380.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::containsKey() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/Gallery.class on line 914.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 204.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::get() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/Gallery.class on line 914.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 187.
  • : Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::getPluginParameter() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUrlGenerator.class on line 382.
  • : Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 235.
  • : Non-static method GalleryPluginHelper_simple::getParameter() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 237.
  • : Non-static method GalleryPluginHelper_simple::_fetchAllParameters() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryPluginHelper_simple.class on line 221.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::containsKey() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryPluginHelper_simple.class on line 281.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 204.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::getFromDisk() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryPluginHelper_simple.class on line 286.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 274.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::getCachePath() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 281.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::getCacheTuple() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 447.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::put() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryPluginHelper_simple.class on line 290.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 84.
  • : Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/Gallery.class on line 284.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::identifySearchEngine() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GallerySession.class on line 207.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getRequestVariables() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GallerySession.class on line 217.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_getRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 241.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 874.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 878.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 246.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 708.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 714.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::strToLower() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GallerySession.class on line 228.
  • : Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/Gallery.class on line 971.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getServerVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GallerySession.class on line 1242.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 1381.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getRemoteHostAddress() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GallerySession.class on line 1243.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::isTrustedProxy() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 990.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getRequestVariables() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 127.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_getRequestVariable() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 242.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 874.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 878.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 246.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 708.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 714.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 129.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryTranslator::getSupportedLanguageCode() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 131.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryTranslator::getLanguageData() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryTranslator.class on line 398.
  • : Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/Gallery.class on line 525.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::put() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryEmbed.class on line 103.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 84.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryEmbed::isCompatibleWithEmbedApi() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryEmbed.class on line 107.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryEmbed::getApiVersion() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryEmbed.class on line 60.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::isCompatibleWithApi() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryEmbed.class on line 60.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryEmbed::checkActiveUser() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryEmbed.class on line 120.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::containsKey() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryEmbed.class on line 128.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 204.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getRequestVariables() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUrlGenerator.class on line 826.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_getRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 241.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 874.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 878.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_getRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 241.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 874.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 878.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_getRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 241.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 874.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 878.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_getRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 241.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 874.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 878.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 246.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 708.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 714.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 708.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 714.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 708.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 714.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 708.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 714.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::getAllFactoryImplementationIds() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 156.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 152.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::getAllImplementationIds() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 153.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::_getFactoryData() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 214.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::_getSingleton() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 63.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::newFactoryInstanceById() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 163.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 139.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::newInstanceById() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 140.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::_getFactoryData() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 192.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::_getSingleton() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 63.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::newInstance() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 202.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::_getFactoryData() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 141.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::_getSingleton() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 63.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::newFactoryInstanceById() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 163.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 139.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::newInstanceById() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 140.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::_getFactoryData() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 192.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::_getSingleton() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 63.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::newInstance() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 202.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::_getFactoryData() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 141.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::_getSingleton() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 63.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::getPluginBaseDir() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 170.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 176.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/httpauth/classes/HttpAuthPlugin.class on line 21.
  • : Non-static method HttpAuthHelper::getHttpAuth() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/httpauth/classes/HttpAuthPlugin.class on line 40.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getServerVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/httpauth/classes/HttpAuthHelper.class on line 148.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getServerVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/httpauth/classes/HttpAuthHelper.class on line 149.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getServerVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/httpauth/classes/HttpAuthHelper.class on line 150.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getRequestVariables() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/httpauth/classes/HttpAuthHelper.class on line 152.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_getRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 241.
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Patent number: 7196264
Dye sensitized solar cell and method for manufacturing dye sensitized solar cell
Filing Date: 12/23/2002
Publication Date: 03/27/2007
Inventors:
Murai, Shinji (Yokohama, JP), Mikoshiba, Satoshi (Yamato, JP), Sumino, Hiroyasu (Tokyo, JP), Hayase, Shuji (Kitakyushu, JP)
Abstract
The present invention provides a dye sensitized solar cell comprising an n-type semiconductor electrode containing a dye, an opposed electrode, and a gel electrolyte arranged between the n-type semiconductor and the opposed electrode and containing a gelling agent and an electrolyte that contains iodine, wherein the gelling agent contains a compound including an N-containing group and at least one atomic group selected from a group consisting of a sulfonic group and a carboxylic group.
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Patent number: 7179988
Dye sensitized solar cells having foil electrodes
Filing date: Dec 11, 2002
Issue date: Feb 20, 2007
Inventors: James L. Spivack, John Yupeng Gui, Reed Roeder Corderman
Assignee: General Electric Company
Abstract
A solar cell having foil electrodes. Specifically, a metal foil is implemented to form electrodes providing a reduced electron path from a dye-sensitized semiconductor material to the electrodes. In one embodiment, nanowires extending from the substrate on which the solar cell is formed are provided. In another embodiment, cavities are formed in a sheet of conductive foil by oxidation, thereby forming a semiconductive material. The semiconductive material is sensitized with a dye and an electrolyte solution is disposed in the cavities, thereby forming an array of dye-sensitized solar cells.
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Patent number: 7157788
Metal oxide dispersion for dye-sensitized solar cells, photoactive electrode and dye-sensitized ...
Filing date: Feb 20, 2002
Issue date: Jan 2, 2007
Inventors: Katsumi Murofushi, Kunio Kondo, Ryusuke Sato
Assignee: Showa Denko K.K.
Abstract
(1) A metal oxide dispersion for a dye-sensitized solar cell, which contains metal oxide fine particles, a binder composed of a polymer compound having an action to bind to the fine particles and a solvent; (2) a method for producing a photoactive electrode for a dye-sensitized solar cell by coating a dispersion containing the above-mentioned binder and metal oxide fine particles on a sheet-shaped electrode; (3) a photoactive electrode for a dye-sensitized solar cell, obtained by the method, which electrode has metal oxide containing the above-mentioned binder and metal oxide fine particles; and (4) a dye-sensitized solar cell with the above-mentioned photoactive electrode. According to the present invention, a porous metal oxide film can be formed without performing sintering at high temperatures, so that a flexible, inexpensive dye-sensitized solar cell can be obtained in which a resin material which has high transparency, is inexpensive and light in weight and has freedom...
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Patent number: 7145071
Dye sensitized solar cell having finger electrodes
Filing date: Dec 11, 2002
Issue date: Dec 5, 2006
Inventors: James L. Spivack, Harish R. Acharya, Donald F. Foust
Assignee: General Electric Company
Abstract
A solar cell comprising at least one electrode having a plurality of fingers. Specifically, an electrode comprising a planar surface and a plurality of fingers extending therefrom is provided. A second electrode is provided. The second electrode comprises a planar surface and may comprise a plurality of fingers which are interdigitated with the fingers of the first electrode. The second electrode provides a catalyst material for the electron transfer to an oxidant during the photovoltaic process. A semiconductor material is disposed between the electrodes. The semiconductor material is saturated with dye and injected with an electrolyte solution. The fingers are arranged to provide a reduced migration path for the oxidant through the electrolyte and for the electrons through the semiconductor material when exposed to incident light.
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Patent number: 7141735
Dye-sensitized photoelectric conversion device
Filing date: Jul 25, 2001
Issue date: Nov 28, 2006
Inventors: Masaaki Ikeda, Koichiro Shigaki, Teruhisa Inoue
Assignee: Nippon Kayaku Kabushiki Kaisha
Abstract
The present invention relates to an organic dye-sensitized semiconductor device and to a solar cell using it and, particularly, to a photoelectric conversion device using semiconductor fine particles sensitized with a dye having an acrylic acid part and a solar cell using it. According to the present invention, a low-cost photoelectric conversion device having favorable conversion efficiency and a solar cell can be obtained.
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Patent number: 7126054
Raw material kit for electrolytic composition, electrolytic composition, and dye-sensitized ..
Filing date: Jun 27, 2002
Issue date: Oct 24, 2006
Inventors: Shinji Murai, Hiroyasu Sumino, Satoshi Mikoshiba, Shuji Hayase
Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
Abstract
Disclosed is a dye-sensitized solar cell comprising a gel electrolyte that contains a gelling agent and an electrolyte, wherein the gelling agent contains at least one kind of a polymer selected from the group consisting of a first polymer in which polysulfonic acid is crosslinked by a metal ion having a valency of not less than two, a second polymer in which polycarboxylic acid is crosslinked by a metal ion having a valency of not less than two, a third polymer in which a quaternary ammonium salt of polysulfonic acid is crosslinked by a metal ion having a valency of not less than two and a fourth polymer in which a quaternary ammonium salt of polycarboxylic acid is crosslinked by a metal ion having a valency of not less than two.
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Patent number: 7118936
Organic dye-sensitized metal oxide semiconductor electrode and its manufacturing method, and ..
Filing date: Oct 11, 2002
Issue date: Oct 10, 2006
Inventors: Taichi Kobayashi, Masato Yoshikawa, Yoshinori Iwabuchi, Itsuo Tanuma, Shingo Oono
Assignee: Bridgestone Corporation
Abstract
The present invention provides a semiconductor electrode of organic dye-sensitized metal oxide having a semiconductor layer of metal oxide that can be easily prepared, and an organic dye-sensitized solar cell. The semiconductor electrode of organic dye-sensitized metal oxide comprises a substrate having a transparent electrode thereon, a semiconductor layer of metal oxide provided on the electrode and an organic dye absorbed on a surface of the semiconductor layer, the semiconductor layer being formed by a vapor deposition process.
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Patent number: 7115338
Battery and method for generating electricity
Filing date: May 24, 2005
Issue date: Oct 3, 2006
Inventor: Tadashi Sotomura
Assignee: Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
Primary Examiner: Patrick Joseph Ryan
Abstract
A positive electrode, a negative electrode, and an electrolyte intervening between the positive electrode and the negative electrode are employed, and a molecule capable of being excited due to absorption of light and electrochemically oxidizing carbohydrate is provided at at least either the negative electrode or the electrolyte, with production of electromotive force occurring between the positive electrode and the negative electrode as a result of supply of carbohydrate while the molecule is irradiated with light and oxidization of carbohydrate by the molecule at the negative electrode. This method makes it possible for the chemical energy which carbohydrates possess to be directly utilized as electrical energy.
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Patent number: 7094441
Low temperature interconnection of nanoparticles
Filing date: Aug 13, 2004
Issue date: Aug 22, 2006
Inventors: Kethinni G. Chittibabu, Russell Gaudiana, Bill Beckenbaugh, Lian Li, Michael Lee
Assignee: Konarka Technologies, Inc.
Abstract
A polymeric linking agent enables the manufacture of photovoltaic cells on flexible substrates, including, for example, polymeric substrates. Photovoltaic cells may be fabricated by a relatively simple continuous manufacturing process, for example, a roll-to-roll process, instead of a batch process.
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Patent number: 7078613
Structured micro-channel semiconductor electrode for photovoltaic cells
Filing date: Dec 11, 2002
Issue date: Jul 18, 2006
Inventors: James L. Spivack, Donald F. Foust
Assignee: General Electric Company
Abstract
A solar cell having a plurality of micro-channels. Specifically, a plurality of micro-channels are formed in a semiconductor material that has been disposed on the surface of a planar electrode. The semiconductor material is saturated with dye and injected with an electrolyte solution. The micro-channels are insulated and filled with a material that provides a catalyst material for the electron transfer to an oxidant during the photovoltaic process. The catalyst disposed in the micro-channels forms the upper electrode of the solar cell. The micro-channels are arranged to provide a reduced migration path for the oxidant.
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atent number: 7075703
Process for sealing electro-optic displays
Filing date: Jan 12, 2005
Issue date: Jul 11, 2006
Inventors: Steven J. O'Neil, Gregg M. Duthaler
Assignee: E Ink Corporation
Abstract
An electro-optic display (100) comprising a backplane (102), a layer (112) of electro-optic material and a protective layer (128) capable of absorbing ultra-violet radiation and disposed on the opposed side of the layer (112) of electro-optic material from the backplane (102), is provided with an edge seal (130). The protective layer (128) extends beyond the layer (112) of electro-optic material, thus leaving a peripheral gap between the protective layer (128) and the backplane (102). To form the edge seal (130) an uncured edge sealing material curable by radiation transmitted by the protective layer (128) is placed in the gap and cured by transmitting radiation through the protective layer (128).
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Patent number: 7061009
Solid conjugated semiconductor device having an unmodified hole transport material
Filing date: Sep 3, 2002
Issue date: Jun 13, 2006
Inventors: Gabriele Nelles, Akio Yasuda, Stephane Gaering, Hans-Werner Schmidt, Mukundan Thelakkat, Karickal Raman Haridas
Assignee: Sony International (Europe) GmbH
Abstract
The present invention relates to a device having a solid conjugated semiconductor comprising a hole transport material (HTM), wherein the hole transport material is mixed with oxidized hole transport material as a dopant; to a mixture which can be used as doped hole transport material; and to methods for the preparation of devices having a solid conjugated semiconductor. The present invention also relates to a solar cell comprising such a device and to other devices made with conjugated semiconductors, such as diodes (LEDs), transistors etc.
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Patent number: 7045205
Device based on coated nanoporous structure
Filing date: Feb 19, 2004
Issue date: May 16, 2006
Inventor: Brian M. Sager
Assignee: Nanosolar, Inc.
Abstract
A nanostructured apparatus may include a mesoporous template having an array of regularly-spaced pores. One or more layers of material may conformally coat the walls to a substantially uniform thickness. Such an apparatus can be used in a variety of devices including optoelectronic devices, e.g., light emitting devices (such as LEDs, and lasers) and photovoltaic devices (such as solar cells) optical devices (luminescent, electro-optic, and magnetooptic waveguides, optical filters, optical switches, amplifies, laser diodes, multiplexers, optical couplers, and the like), sensors, chemical devices (such as catalysts) and mechanical devices (such as filters for filtering gases or liquids).
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Patent number: 7042029
Solid state heterojunction and solid state sensitized photovoltaic cell
Filing date: Jul 6, 2004
Issue date: May 9, 2006
Inventors: Michael Graetzel, Robert Plass, Udo Bach
Assignee: Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL)
Abstract
A solid state p-n heterojunction comprising an electron conductor and a hole conductor; it further comprises a sensitising semiconductor, said sensitizing semiconductor being located at an interface between said electron conductor and said hole conductor. In particular, the sensitizing semiconductor is in form of quantum-dots. A solid state sensitized photovoltaic cell comprises such a heterojunction between two electrodes.
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Patent number: 7022910
Photovoltaic cells utilizing mesh electrodes
Filing date: Mar 24, 2003
Issue date: Apr 4, 2006
Inventors: Russell A. Gaudiana, Robert D. Eckert, Alan J. Montello, Edmund R. Montello
Assignee: Konarka Technologies, Inc.
Abstract
In one aspect, the invention provides photovoltaic cells that utilize a mesh electrode on at least one exposure side of the photovoltaic cell. Preferably, the mesh electrode is a metallic mesh. In one embodiment, the invention provides dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) having a wire mesh exposure side electrode and a photovoltaic material comprising a photosensitized interconnected nanoparticle layer. In one embodiment, the wire mesh electrode functions as the cathode of the DSSC. In another embodiment, the wire mesh electrode functions as the anode of the DSSC. In addition, embodiments are provided where wire mesh electrodes are used for the anode and the cathode of a DSSC.
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Patent number: 7019209
Structured dye sensitized solar cell
Filing date: Dec 11, 2002
Issue date: Mar 28, 2006
Inventors: James L. Spivack, Harish R. Acharya
Assignee: General Electric Company
Abstract
A dye sensitized solar cell having a structured electrode. Specifically, a structured electrode is formed using a conductive material. The conductive material is hollowed to create a cavity therethrough. The hollowed conductive material forms a structured electrode which is coupled between two planar electrodes. Insulative layers are implemented to provide electrical separation between the structured electrode and each of the planar electrodes. A dye sensitized semiconductor material and an electrolyte solution are present in the cavity of the structured electrode to provide the presently described solar cell having a structured electrode.
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Patent number: 7019138
Metal complex-based electron-transfer mediators in dye-sensitized solar cells
Filing date: Oct 30, 2002
Issue date: Mar 28, 2006
Inventors: C. Michael Elliott, Shawn A. Sapp, Carlo Alberto Bignozzi, Cristiano Contado, Stefano Caramori
Assignees: Colorado State University Research Foundation, The University of Ferrara
Abstract
This present invention provides a metal-ligand complex and methods for using and preparing the same. In particular, the metal-ligand complex of the present invention is of the formula: description="In-line Formulae" end="lead"La-M-Xbdescription="In-line Formulae" end="tail" where L, M, X, a, and b are those define herein. The metal-ligand complexes of the present invention are useful in a variety of applications including as electron-transfer mediators in dye-sensitized solar cells and related photoelectrochromic devices.
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Patent number: 6987603
Construction of electrophoretic displays
Filing date: Jan 30, 2004
Issue date: Jan 17, 2006
Inventors: Richard J. Paolini, Jr., Robert W. Zehner, Karl R. Amundson, Craig A. Herb, Alexi C. Arango, Andrew L. Loxley
Assignee: E Ink Corporation
Abstract
An electrophoretic display (100) comprises a front light-transmissive substrate (112), a rear substrate (116) spaced from the front substrate (112) so as to leave a cavity, and an electrophoretic medium (102) in the cavity, the electrophoretic medium (102) comprising a liquid external phase (120) and a plurality of capsules (104) suspended in the liquid external phase (120), each of the capsules comprising a capsule wall, a suspending fluid (106) held within the capsule wall and at least one electrically charged particle (108, 110) suspended in the suspending fluid (106).
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Patent number: 6900382
Gel electrolytes for dye sensitized solar cells
Filing date: Jan 24, 2003
Issue date: May 31, 2005
Inventors: Kethinni Chittibabu, Savvas Hadjikyriacou
Assignee: Konarka Technologies, Inc.
Abstract
Replacing liquid electrolytes with solid or quasi-solid electrolytes facilitates the production of photovoltaic cells using continuous manufacturing processes, such as roll-to-roll or web processes, thus creating inexpensive, lightweight photovoltaic cells using flexible plastic substrates.
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United States Patent 7094441
Low temperature interconnection of nanoparticles
Inventors: Chittibabu; Kethinni G. (Westford, MA), Gaudiana; Russell (Merrimack, NH), Beckenbaugh; Bill (New Castle, NH), Li; Lian (North Chelmsford, MA), Lee; Michael (Billerica, MA)
Assignee: Konarka Technologies, Inc. (Lowell, MA)
Appl. No.: 10/918,493
Filed: August 13, 2004
A polymeric linking agent enables the manufacture of photovoltaic cells on flexible substrates, including, for example, polymeric substrates. Photovoltaic cells may be fabricated by a relatively simple continuous manufacturing process, for example, a roll-to-roll process, instead of a batch process.
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United States Patent 7087834
Apparatus and method for photovoltaic energy production based on internal charge emission in a solid-state heterostructure
Inventors: McFarland; Eric W. (Santa Barbara, CA)
Assignee: Andrena, Inc. (Carpinteria, CA)
Appl. No.: 10/750,015
Filed: December 31, 2003
abstract
An apparatus and method for solar energy production comprises a multi-layer solid-state structure including a photosensitive layer, a thin conductor, a charge separation layer, and a back ohmic conductor, wherein light absorption occurs in a photosensitive layer and the charge carriers produced thereby are transported through the thin conductor through the adjacent potential energy barrier. The open circuit voltage of the solar cell can be manipulated by choosing from among a wide selection of materials making up the thin conductor, the charge separation layer, and the back ohmic layer.
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United States Patent 7042029
Solid state heterojunction and solid state sensitized photovoltaic cell
abstract
A solid state p-n heterojunction comprising an electron conductor and a hole conductor; it further comprises a sensitising semiconductor, said sensitizing semiconductor being located at an interface between said electron conductor and said hole conductor. In particular, the sensitizing semiconductor is in form of quantum-dots. A solid state sensitized photovoltaic cell comprises such a heterojunction between two electrodes.
Inventors: Graetzel; Michael (St-Sulpice, CH), Plass; Robert (Lausanne, CH), Bach; Udo (Hilzingen, CH)
Assignee: Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) (Lausanne, CH)
Appl. No.: 10/885,224
Filed: July 6, 2004
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United States Patent 7030058
Modified photocatalyst sol
abstact
Disclosed is a modified photocatalyst sol comprising a liquid medium having dispersed therein particles of a modified photocatalyst, wherein the modified photocatalyst particles are prepared by subjecting particles of a photocatalyst to a modification treatment with at least one modifier compound selected from the group consisting of different compounds each of which independently comprises at least one structural unit selected from the group consisting of a monooxydiorganosilane unit, a dioxyorganosilane unit and a difluoromethylene unit, and wherein the modified photocatalyst particles have a specific volume mean particle diameter. Also disclosed is a modified photocatalyst composition comprising the modified photocatalyst sol and a functional substance. Also disclosed are a film formed using the above-mentioned modified photocatalyst sol or modified photocatalyst composition, a functional composite comprising the film and a substrate covered with the film, and a shaped article produced by shaping the above-mentioned modified photocatalyst composition.
Inventors: Nakabayashi; Akira (Yokohama, JP)
Assignee: Asahi Kasei Kabushiki Kaisha (Osaka, JP)
Appl. No.: 09/806,275
Filed: November 22, 1999
PCT Filed: November 22, 1999
PCT No.: PCT/JP99/06522
371(c)(1),(2),(4) Date: March 27, 2001
PCT Pub. No.: WO00/30747
PCT Pub. Date: June 02, 2000
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United States Patent 6936143
Tandem cell for water cleavage by visible light
abstract
A tandem cell or photoelectrochemical system for the cleavage of water to hydrogen and oxygen by visible light has two superimposed photocells, both cells being connected electrically. The photoactive material in the top cell is a semiconducting oxide placed in contact with an aqueous solution. This semiconducting oxide absorbs the blue and green part of the solar emission spectrum of a light source or light sources and generates with the energy collected oxygen and protons from water. The not absorbed yellow and red light transmits the top cell and enters a second photocell, the bottom cell, which is mounted, in the direction of the light behind, preferably directly behind the top cell. The bottom cell includes a dye-sensitized mesoporous photovoltaic film. The bottom cell converts the yellow, red and near infrared portion of the sunlight to drive the reduction of the protons, which are produced in the top cell during the photo catalytic water oxidation process, to hydrogen.
Inventors: Graetzel; Michael (St. Sulpice, CH), Augustynski; Jan (Geneva, CH)
Assignee: Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Lausanne, CH)
Appl. No.: 10/030,036
Filed: June 10, 2002
PCT Filed: April 07, 2000
PCT No.: PCT/EP00/06350
371(c)(1),(2),(4) Date: June 10, 2002
PCT Pub. No.: WO01/02624
PCT Pub. Date: January 11, 2001
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United States Patent 6924427
Wire interconnects for fabricating interconnected photovoltaic cells
Inventors: Eckert; Robert (Lexington, MA), Gaudiana; Russell (Merrimack, NH), Li; Lian (North Chelmsford, MA), Montello; Alan (West Newbury, MA), Montello; Edmund (Rockport, MA)
Assignee: Konarka Technologies, Inc. (Lowell, MA)
Appl. No.: 10/351,298
Filed: January 24, 2003
abstract
The invention, in one embodiment, is directed to various aspects of the use of one or more wires in conjunction with an adhesive strip to serve as an electrically conductive connector between the photoactive layers of a photovoltaic cell or module.
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Gel electrolytes for dye sensitized solar cells
United States Patent 6900382
Replacing liquid electrolytes with solid or quasi-solid electrolytes facilitates the production of photovoltaic cells using continuous manufacturing processes, such as roll-to-roll or web processes, thus creating inexpensive, lightweight photovoltaic cells using flexible plastic substrates.
Inventors: Chittibabu; Kethinni (Nashua, NH), Hadjikyriacou; Savvas (Lowell, MA)
Assignee: Konarka Technologies, Inc. (Lowell, MA)
Appl. No.: 10/350,912
Filed: January 24, 2003
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Method for manufacturing nanostructured thin film electrodes
United States Patent 6881604
A method for a binder-free manufacturing a nanostructured porous film, e.g. for use in solar cells, includes the steps of preparing a suspension of semi-conducting nanometer-sized particles in a volatile suspending agent (21), depositing the particle suspension on a conducting substrate, removing the suspending agent by evaporation (31), thereby leaving a particle layer on said substrate and compressing (P) the deposited particle layer for mechanical and electrical interconnection.
Inventors: Lindstrom; Henrik (Uppsala, SE), Sodergren; Sven (Uppsala, SE), Linquist; Sten-Eric (Uppsala, SE), Hagfeldt; Anders (Bjorklinge, SE)
Assignee: Forskarpatent i Uppsala AB (Uppsala, SE)
Appl. No.: 10/685,540
Filed: October 16, 2003
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Solid state heterojunction and solid state sensitized photovoltaic cell
United States Patent 6861722
A solid state p-n heterojunction comprising an electron conductor and a hole conductor; it further comprises a sensitising semiconductor, said sensitizing semiconductor being located at an interface between said electron conductor and said hole conductor. In particular, the sensitizing semiconductor is in form of quantum-dots. A solid state sensitized photovoltaic cell comprises such a layered heterojunction between two electrodes.
Inventors: Graetzel; Michael (St-Sulpice, CH), Plass; Robert (Versoix, CH), Bach; Udo (Ct. Dublin, IE)
Assignee: Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Lausanne, CH)
Appl. No.: 09/918,115
Filed: July 30, 2001
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Zinc oxide with acicular structure, process for its production, and
photoelectric conversion device
United States Patent 6860982
A process for producing a zinc oxide acicular structure by growing an acicular zinc oxide on a substrate, the process comprising the steps of holding the substrate in an electrolytic solution in which at least zinc ions are present, and forming zinc oxide on the substrate by electrodeposition. The electrolytic solution contains at least one cosolute. Also disclosed is a photoelectric conversion device comprising a charge transport layer having the zinc oxide acicular structure.
Inventors: Okura; Hiroshi (Kanagawa, JP), Den; Tohru (Tokyo, JP), Konakahara; Kaoru (Kanagawa, JP)
Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha (Tokyo, JP)
Appl. No.: 10/101,462
Filed: March 20, 2002
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Low temperature interconnection of nanoparticles
United States Patent 6858158
A polymeric linking agent enables the manufacture of photovoltaic cells on flexible substrates, including, for example, polymeric substrates. Photovoltaic cells may be fabricated by a relatively simple continuous manufacturing process, for example, a roll-to-roll process, instead of a batch process.
Inventors: Chittibabu; Kethinni (Nashua, NH), Gaudiana; Russell (Merrimack, NH)
Assignee: Konarka Technologies, Inc. (Lowell, MA)
Appl. No.: 10/350,913
Filed: January 24, 2003
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Photovoltaic cell using stable Cu2O nanocrystals and conductive polymers
United States Patent 6849798
The present invention relates to the use of a nanocrystalline layer of Cu.sub.2 O in the construction of photovoltaic cells to increase the ability of the photovoltaic cells to utilize UV radiations for photocurrent generation.
Inventors: Mitra; Chayan (Bangalore, IN), Walker Merfeld; Danielle (Loudonville, NY), Somasundaram; Gunasekaran (Kangalore, IN)
Assignee: General Electric Company (Schenectady, NY)
Appl. No.: 10/321,181
Filed: December 17, 2002
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Dye-sensitized photoelectric conversion device
United States Patent 6822159
The present invention aims at developing a low-cost photoelectric conversion device having favorable conversion efficiency and a solar cell and, accordingly, relates to a photoelectric conversion device of a semiconductor fine particles, being sensitized with an organic dye, which adsorbs thereon a specified azo dye expressed by the general formula 1: ##STR1## wherein Ar 1 represents an aromatic group having at least one substituent selected from the group consisting of a carboxylic acid group, a hydroxyl group, a phosphoric acid group, a phosphoric acid ester group and a mercapto group either directly or via a cross-linking group; and Ar 2 represents an aromatic group having at least one electron-donating group as a substituent, and also to a solar cell using the photoelectric conversion device.
Inventors: Ikeda; Masaaki (Tokyo, JP), Shigaki; Koichiro (Tokyo, JP), Inoue; Teruhisa (Tokyo, JP), Yanagida; Shozo (Kawanishi-shi, Hyogo 666-0133, JP)
Assignee: Nippon Kayaku Kabushiki Kaisha (Tokyo, JP)
Yanagida; Shozo (Hyogo, JP)
Appl. No.: 10/311,036
Filed: December 12, 2002
PCT Filed: June 26, 2001
PCT No.: PCT/JP01/05452
PCT Pub. No.: WO02/01667
PCT Pub. Date: January 03, 2002
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Process for preparing ambient temperature ionic liquids
United States Patent 6774240
A process for preparing an ionic liquid or salt, formed by reaction between an organic base and an alkylating agent, wherein the alkylating agent is a fluorinated ester or an alkyl sulfonate, is described. Suitable organic bases include imidazoles, substituted imidazoles, pyridines and substituted pyridines. The so-formed products can be subsequently transformed into different ionic liquids or salts by metathesis.
Inventors: Seddon; Kenneth R. (Donaghadee, GB), Carmichael; Adrian J (Coventry, GB), Earle; Martyn J. (Belfast, GB)
Assignee: The Queen's University of Belfast (Belfast, GB)
Appl. No.: 10/148,406
Filed: September 9, 2002
PCT Filed: December 01, 2000
PCT No.: PCT/GB00/04584
PCT Pub. No.: WO01/40146
PCT Pub. Date: June 07, 2001
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Apparatus and method for photovoltaic energy production based on internal charge emission in a solid-state heterostructure
United States Patent 6774300
An apparatus and method for solar energy production comprises a multi-layer solid-state structure including a photosensitive layer, a thin conductor, a charge separation layer, and a back ohmic conductor, wherein light absorption occurs in a photosensitive layer and the charge carriers produced thereby are transported through the thin conductor through the adjacent potential energy barrier. The open circuit voltage of the solar cell can be manipulated by choosing from among a wide selection of materials making up the thin conductor, the charge separation layer, and the back ohmic layer.
Inventors: McFarland; Eric W. (Santa Barbara, CA)
Assignee: Adrena, Inc. (Santa Barbara, CA)
Appl. No.: 10/057,223
Filed: January 25, 2002
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Dye-sensitized solar cells including polymer electrolyte gel containing poly(vinylidene fluoride)
United States Patent 6756537
A dye-sensitized solar cell including a polymer electrolyte gel having a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer is provided. The dye-sensitized solar cell includes a semiconductor electrode, an opposed electrode, and a polymer electrolyte gel interposed between the semiconductor electrode and the opposed electrode while including poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer or the copolymer thereof. Here, the polymer electrolyte gel is formed of a N-methy-2-pyrrolidone solvent or a 3-methoxypropionitrile (MP) solvent and the PVDF polymer or the copolymer thereof which is dissolved in the solvent to a predetermined amount.
Inventors: Kang; Man-Gu (Daejeon, KR), Park; Nam-Gyu (Daejeon, KR), Kim; Kwang-Man (Daejeon, KR), Chang; Soon-Ho (Daejeon, KR)
Assignee: Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (Daejeon, KR)
Appl. No.: 10/356,559
Filed: February 3, 2003
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Electrochromic or photoelectrochromic device
United States Patent 6734305
An electrochromic or photoelectrochromic device possessing the property of changing color under the effect of an electric voltage and/or of a variation in the intensity of a light radiation, this device comprising at least one cathode and one anode, at least one of these electrodes being constituted at least in part of a transparent or translucent substrate bearing an electrically conductive coating, and an electrolyte arranged between these electrodes, and an electric circuit connecting said cathode and anode, characterized in that at least one of these electrodes carries a coating constituted of at least one nanocrystalline layer of at least one semiconductive material, having a roughness factor equal to at least 20, and a monolayer of electrically active molecules or of an electrically active polymer, said monolayer being absorbed on the surface of this coating, and in that the device contains at least one auxiliary electrically active compound, possibly dissolved in the electrolyte, having the property of being capable of being oxidized or reduced in a reversible manner.
Inventors: Pierre; Bonhote (Neuchatel, CH), Lorenz; Walder (Osnabruck, DE), Michael; Gratzel (Saint-Sulpice, CH)
Assignee: Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Lausanne, CH)
Appl. No.: 10/165,318
Filed: June 7, 2002

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Photovoltaic cells
United States Patent 6720202
Improved photovoltaic cells utilizing for a semiconductor layer, titanium dioxide powders, consisting of porous particles, ranging in size from 0.1 to 10 microns (10.sup.-6 meters), and possess relatively high bulk density combined with high surface area.
Inventors: Wang; Ying (Wilmington, DE)
Appl. No.: 10/197,103
Filed: July 17, 2002
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Hybrid solar cells with thermal deposited semiconductive oxide layer
United States Patent 6706962
Method for producing a hybrid organic solar cell having the general structure Substrate+EM/HTM/dye/SOL/EM, or Substrate+EM/SOL/dye/HTM/EM, or Substrate+EM/HTM/SOL/EM, in which EM is the electrode material that may be a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) or metal, with at least one of the EM layer(s) of the cell being a TCO, HTM is the hole transport material, SOL is a semiconducting oxide layer, "dye" is a suitable dye, and the SOL layer is vapor deposited.
Inventors: Nelles; Gabrielle (Stuttgart, DE), Yasuda; Akio (Stuttgart, DE), Schmidt; Hans-Werner (Bayreuth, DE), Thelakkat; Mukundan (Bayreuth, DE), Schmitz; Christoph (Frankfurt am Main, DE)
Assignee: Sony International (Europe) GmbH (Berlin, DE)
Appl. No.: 09/989,848
Filed: November 21, 2001
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Photovoltaic cell interconnection
United States Patent 6706963
In one aspect, the invention provides photovoltaic modules. In one embodiment, a photovoltaic module includes a plurality of photovoltaic cells, at least two of which include a photosensitized nanomatrix layer and a charge carrier media. Preferably, the cells further include a catalytic media layer. The photovoltaic cells are disposed between a first electrical connection layer and a second electrical connection layer. In one embodiment, the cells are interconnected in series and the electrical connections layers each include conductive and insulative regions.
Inventors: Gaudiana; Russell (Merrimack, NH), Li; Lian (N. Chelmsford, MA)
Assignee: Konarka Technologies, Inc. (Lowell, MA)
Appl. No.: 10/057,394
Filed: January 25, 2002
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Hole transporting agents and photoelectric conversion device comprising the same
United States Patent 6700058
A photoelectric conversion device comprising a semiconductor and an organic electrically conducting agent, wherein the organic electrically conducting agent exhibits a melting temperature T.sub.m which is lower than the operation temperature of the photoelectric conversion device.
Inventors: Nelles; Gabriele (Stuttgart, DE), Yasuda; Akio (Stuttgart, DE), Schmidt; Hans-Werner (Bayreuth, DE), Mukundan; Thelakkat (Bayreuth, DE), Karickal; Haridas R. (Bayreuth, DE), Lupo; Donal (Dublin, IE)
Assignee: Sony International (Europe) GmbH (Berlin, DE)
Appl. No.: 09/866,199
Filed: May 25, 2001
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High performance lithium or lithium ion cell
United States Patent 6699623
Graphite sheeting having a thickness of less than 250 micrometers and in-plane conductivity of at least 100 S/cm when employed as a cathode current collector in a lithium or lithium ion cell containing a fluorinated lithium imide or methide electrolyte salt imparts high thermal resistance, excellent electrochemical stability, and surprisingly high capacity retention at high rates of discharge.
Inventors: Dai; Hongli (Wilmington, DE)
Assignee: E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (Wilmington, DE)
Appl. No.: 09/684,206
Filed: October 6, 2000
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Solar cell and solar cell unit
United States Patent 6683361
The solar cell of the present invention includes a titanium dioxide semiconductor that is held between a pair of electrodes so that the titanium dioxide semiconductor and at least one of the electrodes form a rectification barrier.
Inventors: Fujimori; Yuji (Suwa, JP), Miyamoto; Tsutomu (Suwa, JP)
Assignee: Seiko Epson Corporation (Tokyo, JP)
Appl. No.: 09/914,293
Filed: November 6, 2001
PCT Filed: December 26, 2000
PCT No.: PCT/JP00/09241
PCT Pub. No.: WO01/48833
PCT Pub. Date: July 05, 2001
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Electric connection of electrochemical and photoelectrochemical cells
United States Patent 6657119
An electrolytic cell assembly, e.g. for use in solar panels, is formed by placing coated metal wires (7,9) between the conducting layers (3,6) of two conducting glasses (1,4), respectively. A pressure force (F) is applied to press the metal wires between the conducting layers and to break the coating of the wires, thereby bringing the metal wires in electrical contact with the conducting layers. The coating protects the wires from harmful contact with an electrolyte inside the cell.
Inventors: Lindquist; Sten-Eric (Uppsala, SE), Hagfeldt; Anders (Bjorklinge, SE), Lindstrom; Henrik (Uppsala, SE), Sodergren; Sven (Uppsala, SE)
Assignee: Forskarpatent I Uppsala AB (Uppsala, SE)
Appl. No.: 10/024,715
Filed: December 14, 2001
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Method for making a photovoltaic cell containing a dye
United States Patent 6613598
The invention pertains to a method of making a photovoltaic cell at least comprising the following layers in the following order: a first electrode layer, a transparent wide band gap semiconductor layer provided with a layer of a photosensitising dye or pigment which in combination with the semiconductor layer has the ability to spatially separate photogenerated electrons from their positive countercharges, a layer of an electrolyte, a catalyst layer, and a second electrode layer. The method is characterized in that the first electrode layer and the semiconductor layer and/or the second electrode layer and the catalyst layer are deposited on a flexible temporary substrate that is removed later on. The electrode or electrodes, which are deposited on the temporary substrate, are transparent. The invention allows the roll-to-roll manufacture of said photovoltaic cell while providing great freedom in selecting the processing conditions.
Inventors: Middelman; Erik (Arnhem, NL), Schropp; Rudolf Emmanuel Isidore (Arnhem, NL), Salafsky; Joshua Samuel (Arnhem, NL)
Assignee: Akzo Nobel N.V. (Arnhem, NL)
Appl. No.: 09/646,843
Filed: January 29, 2001
PCT Filed: March 19, 1999
PCT No.: PCT/EP99/01898
PCT Pub. No.: WO99/49483
PCT Pub. Date: September 30, 1999
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Convergent synthesis of multiporphyrin light-harvesting rods
United States Patent 6603070
The present invention provides a convergent method for the synthesis of light harvesting rods. The rods are oligomers of the formula A.sup.1 (A.sup.b+1).sub.b, wherein b is at least 1, A.sup.1 through A.sup.b+1 are covalently coupled rod segments, and each rod segment A.sup.1 through A.sup.1+b comprises a compound of the formula X.sup.1 (X.sup.m+1).sub.m wherein m is at least 1 and X.sup.1 through X.sup.m+1 are covalently coupled porphyrinic macrocycles. Light harvesting arrays and solar cells containing such light harvesting rods are also described, along with intermediates useful in such methods and rods produced by such methods.
Inventors: Lindsey; Jonathan S. (Raleigh, NC), Loewe; Robert S. (Morrisville, NC)
Assignee: North Carolina State University (Raleigh, NC)
Appl. No.: 09/939,010
Filed: August 24, 2001
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Solar cells incorporating light harvesting arrays
United States Patent 6596935
A solar cell incorporates a light harvesting array that comprises: (a) a first substrate comprising a first electrode; and (b) a layer of light harvesting rods electrically coupled to the first electrode, each of the light harvesting rods comprising a polymer of Formula I: ##EQU1## wherein m is at least 1, and may be from two, three or four to 20 or more; X.sup.1 is a charge separation group (and preferably a porphyrinic macrocycle, which may be one ligand of a double-decker sandwich compound) having an excited-state of energy equal to or lower than that of X.sup.2 ; and X.sup.2 through X.sup.m+1 are chromophores (and again are preferably porphyrinic macrocycles).
Inventors: Lindsey; Jonathan S. (Raleigh, NC), Meyer; Gerald J. (Baltimore, MD)
Assignee: North Carolina State University (Raleigh, NC)
Appl. No.: 10/141,654
Filed: May 8, 2002
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Photovoltaically self-charging storage system
United States Patent 6541697
The present invention relates to a photovoltaically self-charging storage system having a layer structure in which a first material (1), which forms a first redox system, a second material (2), which forms a second redox system, and a photosensitive material (3) are arranged in or between a first (4) and a second electrically conductive layer (5). At least one of the electrically conductive layers (4, 5) is transparent for visible light. The first and the second material (1, 2) are each in electrical contact with one of the electrically conductive layers (4, 5) and arranged in the layer structure in such a manner that, due to the effect of light, the photosensitive material (3) induces a redox reaction A.sub.ox +B.sub.red.fwdarw.A.sub.red +B.sub.ox, which can be reversed if light ceases. The thickness of the layer over which the first (1) and/or second material (2) extends is configured in such a manner that a charge storage sufficient for operating an electrical consumer is made possible. The additional introduction of a catalyst material accelerating said back reaction enables the spatial separation of the direct reaction and the back reaction. The inventive system enables the photovoltaic conversion and charge storage using a simple layer structure in an advantageous manner.
Inventors: Georg; Andreas (Freiburg, DE), Hauch; Anneke (Freiburg, DE)
Assignee: Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Forderung der angewandten Forschung e.V. (Munich, DE)
Appl. No.: 09/979,097
Filed: November 19, 2001
PCT Filed: May 15, 2000
PCT No.: PCT/DE00/01554
PCT Pub. No.: WO00/72340
PCT Pub. Date: November 30, 2000
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Molecular level optical information storage devices
United States Patent 6500510
The present invention relates to use of transition metal complexes in photochromic devices, to the production of optical information storage devices based on a polymeric matrix and on metal oxides with adsorbed transition metal complexes, to the production of photochromic materials constituted by a film of metal oxide with adsorbed two different type of molecular systems, one acting as a charge transfer sensitizer and the second as an electron acceptor.
Inventors: Sanders; Patrick (Newport Beach, CA), Bignozzi; Carlo Alberto (Ferrara, IT)
Assignee: Molecular Storage Technologies, Inc. (Newport Beach, CA)
Appl. No.: 09/544,767
Filed: April 7, 2000
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Photovoltaic cell and method for the production thereof
United States Patent 6462266
A new photovoltaic cell is described, in particular a dye or solar cell having electrically conducting coatings on spaced, glass support panes. In its border zones, the cell is provided with a circumferentially extending seal. Furthermore, the electrically conductive conductor leads are protected against corrosion by an insulating coating on the side facing the cell inside. A method of manufacture of a photovoltaic cell of the type mentioned is described in which the electrically conductive leads are applied using a screen printing process.
Inventors: Kurth; Martin (Zuchwil, CH)
Assignee: Kurth Glas & Spiegel AG (Zuchwil, CH)
Appl. No.: 09/913,117
Filed: August 7, 2001
PCT Filed: February 05, 2000
PCT No.: PCT/CH00/00062
371(c)(1),(2),(4) Date: August 07, 2001
PCT Pub. No.: WO00/48212
PCT Pub. Date: August 17, 2000
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Process for making and using titanium oxide particles
United States Patent 6444189
Titanium oxide particles are prepared from the reaction of an aqueous basic solution with (1) an aqueous acidic titanium salt solution, or (2) an aqueous salt solution of a titanium salt and an aqueous salt solution of a dopant metal salt. In preferred embodiments, the particles may range in size from 0.1 to 10 microns (10-6 meters), and possess relatively high bulk density combined with high surface area.
Inventors: Wang; Ying (Wilmington, DE), Swanson; Donald Keith (Neshanic Station, NJ)
Assignee: E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (Wilmington, DE)
Appl. No.: 09/558,050
Filed: April 26, 2000
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Nanosize metal oxide particles for producing transparent metal oxide colloids and ceramers
United States Patent 6432526
The present invention relates to metal oxide particles capable of being highly dispersed in organic materials to form transparent colloids and ceramers. The metal oxide particles of the present invention have surfaces attached to a dispersing aid and a degree of crystallinity of greater than 55 percent. The crystallite diameter of the metal oxide particles is greater than about 4 nanometers and less than about 20 nanometers. The present invention also relates to the colloids and ceramers prepared using these metal oxide particles and the methods associated with the preparation of the particles, colloids, and ceramers.
Inventors: Arney; David S. (St. Paul, MN), Wood; Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN)
Assignee: 3M Innovative Properties Company (St. Paul, MN)
Appl. No.: 09/992,713
Filed: November 19, 2001
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Electrochromic or photoelectrochromic device
United States Patent 6426827
Electrochromic and photoelectrochromic devices using nanocrystalline semiconductor electrodes with a high specific surface area and surface-absorbed electrochromic molecules are disclosed.
Inventors: Bonhote; Pierre (Neuchatel, CH), Walder; Lorenz (Osnabruck, DE), Gratzel; Michael (Saint-Sulpice, CH)
Assignee: Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Lausanne, CH)
Appl. No.: 09/549,443
Filed: April 14, 2000
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Light harvesting arrays
United States Patent 6420648
A light harvesting array useful for the manufacture of devices such as solar cells comprises: (a) a first substrate comprising a first electrode; and (b) a layer of light harvesting rods electrically coupled to the first electrode, each of the light harvesting rods comprising a polymer of Formula I: X.sup.1.paren open-st.X.sup.m+1).sub.m (I) wherein m is at least 1, and may be from two, three or four to 20 or more; X.sup.1 is a charge separation group (and preferably a porphyrinic macrocycle, which may be one ligand of a double-decker sandwich compound) having an excited-state of energy equal to or lower than that of X.sup.2, and X.sup.2 through X.sup.m+1 are chromophores (and again are preferably porphyrinic macrocycles).
Inventors: Lindsey; Jonathan S. (Raleigh, NC)
Assignee: North Carolina State University (Raleigh, NC)
Appl. No.: 09/621,797
Filed: July 21, 2000
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Solar cells incorporating light harvesting arrays
United States Patent 6407330
A solar cell incorporates a light harvesting array that comprises: (a) a first substrate comprising a first electrode; and (b) a layer of light harvesting rods electrically coupled to the first electrode, each of the light harvesting rods comprising a polymer of Formula I: X.sup.1.paren open-st.X.sup.m+1).sub.m (I) wherein m is at least 1, and may be from two, three or four to 20 or more; X.sup.1 is a charge separation group (and preferably a porphyrinic macrocycle, which may be one ligand of a double-decker sandwich compound) having an excited-state of energy equal to or lower than that of X.sup.2 ; and X.sup.2 through X.sup.m+1 are chromophores (and again are preferably porphyrinic macrocycles).
Inventors: Lindsey; Jonathan S. (Raleigh, NC), Meyer; Gerald J. (Baltimore, MD)
Assignee: North Carolina State University (Raleigh, NC)
Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore, MD)
Appl. No.: 09/621,091
Filed: July 21, 2000
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Process for preparing a nanocrystalline material
United States Patent 6379635
A process for preparing a nanocrystalline material comprising at least a first ion and at least a second ion different from the first ion, and wherein at least the first ion is a metal ion, is described. The process comprises contacting a metal complex comprising the first ion and the second ion with a dispersing medium suitable to form the nanocrystalline material and wherein the dispersing medium is at a temperature to allow formation by pyrolysis of the nanocrystalline material when contacted with the metal complex.
Inventors: O'Brien; Paul (Loughton, GB), Dade; Tito Trin (Ilhavo, PT)
Assignee: Imperial College of Science, Technology & Medicine (London, GB)
Appl. No.: 09/043,258
Filed: September 9, 1998
PCT Filed: August 09, 1996
PCT No.: PCT/GB96/01942
371 Date: September 09, 1998
102(e) Date: September 09, 1998
PCT Pub. No.: WO97/10175
PCT Pub. Date: March 20, 1997
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Spectral sensitization of nanocrystalline solar cells
United States Patent 6359211
This invention relates to dye sensitized polycrystalline photoelectrochemical solar cells for use in energy transduction from light to electricity. It concerns the utility of highly absorbing organic chromophores as sensitizers in such cells and the degree to which they may be utilized alone and in combination to produce an efficient photoelectrochemical cell, e.g., a regenerative solar cell.
Inventors: Spitler; Mark T. (Concord, MA), Ehret; Anne (Malden, MA), Stuhl; Louis S. (Bedford, MA)
Assignee: Chemmotif, Inc. (Concord, MA)
Appl. No.: 09/596,819
Filed: June 19, 2000

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