US Patents filed before the year 2000

  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::put() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/embed.php on line 32.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 84.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_performMaintenance() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 97.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 167.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::containsKey() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/Gallery.class on line 914.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 204.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::get() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/Gallery.class on line 914.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 187.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getRequestVariablesNoPrefix() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/embed.php on line 45.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_getRequestVariable() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 289.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 874.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 878.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 293.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 708.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 714.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryEmbed::init() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/solarcellsinfo/dyecell/modules/gallery2/gallery_base.inc on line 101.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::containsKey() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryEmbed.class on line 93.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 204.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryEmbed::_saveState() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryEmbed.class on line 94.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 42.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 43.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 44.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 45.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryModule.class on line 21.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 51.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryPlatform/UnixPlatform.class on line 21.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 97.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getServerVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUrlGenerator.class on line 356.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getServerVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUrlGenerator.class on line 357.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 1381.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getServerVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUrlGenerator.class on line 368.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getServerVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUrlGenerator.class on line 368.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::isEmbedded() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUrlGenerator.class on line 380.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::containsKey() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/Gallery.class on line 914.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 204.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::get() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/Gallery.class on line 914.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 187.
  • : Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::getPluginParameter() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUrlGenerator.class on line 382.
  • : Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 235.
  • : Non-static method GalleryPluginHelper_simple::getParameter() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 237.
  • : Non-static method GalleryPluginHelper_simple::_fetchAllParameters() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryPluginHelper_simple.class on line 221.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::containsKey() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryPluginHelper_simple.class on line 281.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 204.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::getFromDisk() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryPluginHelper_simple.class on line 286.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 274.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::getCachePath() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 281.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::getCacheTuple() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 447.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::put() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryPluginHelper_simple.class on line 290.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 84.
  • : Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/Gallery.class on line 284.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::identifySearchEngine() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GallerySession.class on line 207.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getRequestVariables() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GallerySession.class on line 217.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_getRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 241.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 874.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 878.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 246.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 708.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 714.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::strToLower() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GallerySession.class on line 228.
  • : Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/Gallery.class on line 971.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getServerVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GallerySession.class on line 1242.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 1381.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getRemoteHostAddress() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GallerySession.class on line 1243.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::isTrustedProxy() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 990.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getRequestVariables() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 127.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_getRequestVariable() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 242.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 874.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 878.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 246.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 708.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 714.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 129.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryTranslator::getSupportedLanguageCode() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 131.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryTranslator::getLanguageData() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryTranslator.class on line 398.
  • : Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/Gallery.class on line 525.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::put() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryEmbed.class on line 103.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 84.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryEmbed::isCompatibleWithEmbedApi() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryEmbed.class on line 107.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryEmbed::getApiVersion() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryEmbed.class on line 60.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryUtilities::isCompatibleWithApi() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryEmbed.class on line 60.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryEmbed::checkActiveUser() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryEmbed.class on line 120.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::containsKey() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryEmbed.class on line 128.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 204.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getRequestVariables() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUrlGenerator.class on line 826.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_getRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 241.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 874.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 878.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_getRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 241.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 874.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 878.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_getRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 241.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 874.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 878.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_getRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 241.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 874.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 878.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 246.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 708.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 714.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 708.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 714.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 708.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 714.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 708.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 714.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::getAllFactoryImplementationIds() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 156.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 152.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::getAllImplementationIds() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 153.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::_getFactoryData() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 214.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::_getSingleton() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 63.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::newFactoryInstanceById() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 163.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 139.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::newInstanceById() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 140.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::_getFactoryData() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 192.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::_getSingleton() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 63.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::newInstance() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 202.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::_getFactoryData() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 141.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::_getSingleton() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 63.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::newFactoryInstanceById() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 163.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 139.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::newInstanceById() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 140.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::_getFactoryData() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 192.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::_getSingleton() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 63.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::newInstance() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 202.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::_getFactoryData() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 141.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryFactoryHelper_simple::_getSingleton() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 63.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::getPluginBaseDir() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 170.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryFactoryHelper_simple.class on line 176.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/httpauth/classes/HttpAuthPlugin.class on line 21.
  • : Non-static method HttpAuthHelper::getHttpAuth() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/httpauth/classes/HttpAuthPlugin.class on line 40.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getServerVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/httpauth/classes/HttpAuthHelper.class on line 148.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getServerVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/httpauth/classes/HttpAuthHelper.class on line 149.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getServerVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/httpauth/classes/HttpAuthHelper.class on line 150.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getRequestVariables() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/httpauth/classes/HttpAuthHelper.class on line 152.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_getRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 241.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 874.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::_internalGetRequestVariable() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 878.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 246.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 708.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::sanitizeInputValues() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUtilities.class on line 714.
  • : Non-static method GalleryUtilities::getServerVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/httpauth/classes/HttpAuthHelper.class on line 155.
  • : Non-static method HttpAuthHelper::getUser() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/httpauth/classes/HttpAuthPlugin.class on line 42.
  • : Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::fetchAllPluginParameters() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/httpauth/classes/HttpAuthHelper.class on line 182.
  • : Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 251.
  • : Non-static method GalleryPluginHelper_simple::fetchAllParameters() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 253.
  • : Non-static method GalleryPluginHelper_simple::_fetchAllParameters() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryPluginHelper_simple.class on line 243.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::containsKey() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryPluginHelper_simple.class on line 281.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 204.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::getFromDisk() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryPluginHelper_simple.class on line 286.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 274.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::getCachePath() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 281.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::getCacheTuple() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 447.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::put() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryPluginHelper_simple.class on line 290.
  • : Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 84.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::getAnonymousUserId() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 180.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::getPluginParameter() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 2961.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 236.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryPluginHelper_simple::getParameter() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 238.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryPluginHelper_simple::_fetchAllParameters() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryPluginHelper_simple.class on line 222.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::containsKey() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryPluginHelper_simple.class on line 281.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 204.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::get() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryPluginHelper_simple.class on line 282.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 187.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::loadEntitiesById() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/init.inc on line 185.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 2258.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryEntityHelper_simple::loadEntitiesById() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 2259.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::containsKey() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryEntityHelper_simple.class on line 53.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 204.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::getFromDisk() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryEntityHelper_simple.class on line 56.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 274.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::getCachePath() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 281.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::getCacheTuple() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 408.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 288.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUser.class on line 21.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryEntity.class on line 21.
  • strict warning: Declaration of GalleryUser::create() should be compatible with GalleryEntity::create() in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUser.class on line 42.
  • strict warning: Declaration of GalleryUser::save() should be compatible with GalleryEntity::save($postEvent = true, $setAclId = NULL) in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryUser.class on line 42.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::put() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/helpers/GalleryEntityHelper_simple.class on line 95.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 84.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::put() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryEmbed.class on line 133.
  • strict warning: Non-static method GalleryDataCache::_getCache() should not be called statically in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryDataCache.class on line 84.
  • : Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/Gallery.class on line 419.
  • : Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryStorage.class on line 30.
  • : mysql_connect(): The mysql extension is deprecated and will be removed in the future: use mysqli or PDO instead in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/lib/adodb/drivers/adodb-mysql.inc.php on line 366.
  • warning: mysql_connect(): Access denied for user 'tamileli_gllr1'@'localhost' (using password: YES) in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/lib/adodb/drivers/adodb-mysql.inc.php on line 366.
  • : Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::error() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryStorage.class on line 226.
  • : Non-static method GalleryCoreApi::requireOnce() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/tamileli/public_html/gallery2/modules/core/classes/GalleryCoreApi.class on line 2751.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/tamileli/public_html/solarcellsinfo/dyecell/includes/file.inc on line 647.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/tamileli/public_html/solarcellsinfo/dyecell/includes/file.inc on line 647.
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  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/tamileli/public_html/solarcellsinfo/dyecell/includes/file.inc on line 647.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/tamileli/public_html/solarcellsinfo/dyecell/includes/file.inc on line 647.
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  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/tamileli/public_html/solarcellsinfo/dyecell/includes/file.inc on line 647.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/tamileli/public_html/solarcellsinfo/dyecell/includes/file.inc on line 647.

Process for preparing a nanocrystalline material
United States Patent 6379635
A process for preparing a nanocrystalline material comprising at least a first ion and at least a second ion different from the first ion, and wherein at least the first ion is a metal ion, is described. The process comprises contacting a metal complex comprising the first ion and the second ion with a dispersing medium suitable to form the nanocrystalline material and wherein the dispersing medium is at a temperature to allow formation by pyrolysis of the nanocrystalline material when contacted with the metal complex.
Inventors: O'Brien; Paul (Loughton, GB), Dade; Tito Trin (Ilhavo, PT)
Assignee: Imperial College of Science, Technology & Medicine (London, GB)
Appl. No.: 09/043,258
Filed: September 9, 1998
PCT Filed: August 09, 1996
PCT No.: PCT/GB96/01942
371 Date: September 09, 1998
102(e) Date: September 09, 1998
PCT Pub. No.: WO97/10175
PCT Pub. Date: March 20, 1997
----

Spectral sensitization of nanocrystalline solar cells
United States Patent 6359211
This invention relates to dye sensitized polycrystalline photoelectrochemical solar cells for use in energy transduction from light to electricity. It concerns the utility of highly absorbing organic chromophores as sensitizers in such cells and the degree to which they may be utilized alone and in combination to produce an efficient photoelectrochemical cell, e.g., a regenerative solar cell.
Inventors: Spitler; Mark T. (Concord, MA), Ehret; Anne (Malden, MA), Stuhl; Louis S. (Bedford, MA)
Assignee: Chemmotif, Inc. (Concord, MA)
Appl. No.: 09/596,819
Filed: June 19, 2000
-----

Photovoltaic cell
United States Patent 6335480
A photovoltaic cell comprising an electrolyte which comprises a hole conductor compound as redox system.
Inventors: Bach; Udo (Renens, CH), Gratzel; Michael (St.-Sulpice, CH), Salbeck; Josef (Kelkheim, DE), Weissortel; Frank (Neuburg an der Donau, DE), Lupo; Donald (Frankfurt, DE)
Assignee: Aventis Research & Technologies GmbH & Co. (Frankfurt am Main, DE)
Appl. No.: 09/381,192
Filed: November 24, 1999
PCT Filed: March 18, 1998
PCT No.: PCT/EP98/01558
371 Date: November 24, 1999
102(e) Date: November 24, 1999
PCT Pub. No.: WO98/48433
PCT Pub. Date: October 29, 1998
----

Nanosize metal oxide particles for producing transparent metal oxide colloids and ceramers
United States Patent 6329058
The present invention relates to metal oxide particles capable of being highly dispersed in organic materials to form transparent colloids and ceramers. The metal oxide particles of the present invention have surfaces attached to a dispersing aid and a degree of crystallinity of greater than 55 percent. The crystallite diameter of the metal oxide particles is greater than about 4 nanometers and less than about 20 nanometers. The present invention also relates to the colloids and ceramers prepared using these metal oxide particles and the methods associated with the preparation of the particles, colloids, and ceramers.
Inventors: Arney; David S. (St. Paul, MN), Wood; Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN)
Assignee: 3M Innovative Properties Company (St. Paul, MN)
Appl. No.: 09/319,057
Filed: May 27, 1999
PCT Filed: July 30, 1998
PCT No.: PCT/US98/15843
371 Date: May 27, 1999
102(e) Date: May 27, 1999
PCT Pub. No.: WO00/06495
PCT Pub. Date: February 10, 2000
-----

Metal complex useful as sensitizer, dye-sensitized oxide semiconductor electrode and solar cell using same
United States Patent 6278056
A metal complex represented by the formula: wherein M represents a Group VIII metal, X represents a polar group, L.sup.1 represents a phenanthroline containing at least one carboxyl group which may be neutralized, L.sup.2 represents a nitrogen-containing polycyclic compound which may contain one or more substituents, and n is an integer of 1 or 2. A dye-sensitized oxide semiconductor electrode includes an electrically conductive body, an oxide semiconductor film provided on a surface of the electrically conductive body, and the above metal complex. A solar cell may be constructed from the above dye-sensitized oxide semiconductor electrode, a counter electrode, and a redox electrolyte contacting with both electrodes.
Inventors: Sugihara; Hideki (Tsukuba, JP), Arakawa; Hironori (Tsukuba, JP), Sayama; Kazuhiro (Tsukuba, JP), Singh; Lok Pratap (Tsukuba, JP), Nazeeruddin; Mohammad Khaja (Ecublens, CH), Graetzel; Michael (Vand, CH)
Assignee: Director-General of Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (JP)
Appl. No.: 09/271,163
Filed: March 18, 1999

------
Method for producing narrow wires comprising titanium oxide, and narrow wires and structures produced by the same method
United States Patent 6270571
A method for producing narrow wires including titanium oxide of high crystallinity and diameter of the order of nanometer, in particular whiskers of titanium oxide, and including a first step of preparing a base having a titanium-including surface, second step of discretely depositing a material other than titanium over the above surface, and third step of thermally treating the above surface, obtained by the second step, in a titanium-oxidizing atmosphere.
Inventors: Iwasaki; Tatsuya (Machida, JP), Den; Tohru (Tokyo, JP)
Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha (Tokyo, JP)
Appl. No.: 09/436,989
Filed: November 9, 1999
----

Metal complex photosensitizer and photovoltaic cell
United States Patent 6245988
A photosensitizer complex of formulae (Ia) MX.sub.3 L.sub.t or (Ib) MXYL.sub.t in which M is a transition metal selected from ruthenium, osmium, iron, rhenium and technetium, preferably ruthenium or osmium; each X is a co-ligand independently selected from NCS--, Cl--, Br--, I--, CN--, NCO--, H.sub.2 O, NCN.sup.2- ; pyridine unsubstituted or substituted by at least one group selected from vinyl, primary, secondary or tertiary amine, OH and C.sub.1-30 alkyl, preferably NCS--; and L.sub.t is a tridentate ligand comprising heterocycles such as pyridine, thiophene, imidazole, pyrazole, triazole, carrying at least one carboxylic, phosphoric, hydoxamic acid or a chelating group. A photovoltaic cell comprising an electrically conductive layer deposited on a support to which at least one titanium dioxide layer has been applied and, as a photosensitizer applied to the titanium dioxide layer, a photosensitizer complex of formula (Ia) or Ib) as specified above.
Inventors: Gratzel; Michael (Saint-Sulpice, CH), Nazeeruddin; Mohammad Khaja (Ecublens, CH), Pechy; Peter (Lausanne, CH)
Assignee: Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Lausanne, CH)
Appl. No.: 09/423,162
Filed: November 2, 1999
PCT Filed: May 07, 1998
PCT No.: PCT/IB98/00680
371 Date: November 02, 1999
102(e) Date: November 02, 1999
PCT Pub. No.: WO98/50393
PCT Pub. Date: November 12, 1998
----

Photochromic devices
United States Patent 6246505
A photochromic device is provided which allows the user to leave the device in a high transmissive state even when exposed to a source of radiation and to control the degree of darkening achieved while exposed to the source of radiation.
Inventors: Teowee; Gimtong (Tucson, AZ), Allemand; Pierre-Marc (Tucson, AZ), Cronin; John P. (Tucson, AZ), Tonazzi; Juan Carlos Lopez (Tucson, AZ), Agrawal; Anoop (Tucson, AZ)
Assignee: Donnelly Corporation (Holland, MI)
Appl. No.: 09/192,360
Filed: November 16, 1998
----

Method for preparation of metal intercalated fullerene-like metal chalcogenides
United States Patent 6217843
A method for the preparation of nanoparticles of metal oxides containing inserted metal particles and to metal-intercalated and/or metal-encaged "inorganic fullerene-like" (hereinafter IF) structures of metal chalcogenides obtained therefrom is provided, which comprises heating a metal I material with water vapor or electron beam evaporation of said metal I material with water or another suitable solvent, in the presence of a metal II salt, and recovering the metal II-doped metal I oxide, or proceeding to subsequent sulfidization, yielding bulk quantities of metal II-intercalated or metal II-encaged IF structures of the metal I chalcogenide. The metal II salt is preferably an alkaline, alkaline earth or transition metal salt, most preferably an alkali chloride. The intercalated and/or encaged IF structures are usable as lubricants. They also form stable suspensions, e.g. in alcohol, and electrophoretic deposition from said suspensions yields thin films of the intercalated IF materials, which have a range of potential applications.
Inventors: Homyonfer; Moshe (Holon, IL), Tenne; Reshef (Rehovot, IL), Feldman; Yishay (Ashdod, IL)
Assignee: Yeda Research and Development Co., Ltd. (Rehovot, IL)
Appl. No.: 09/308,663
Filed: April 3, 2000
PCT Filed: November 27, 1997
PCT No.: PCT/IL97/00390
371 Date: April 03, 2000
102(e) Date: April 03, 2000
PCT Pub. No.: WO98/23796
PCT Pub. Date: June 04, 1998
----

Solar battery
United States Patent 6130378
The object of the present invention is, in a solar battery where at least an electrolyte and a porous member of an oxide semiconductor retaining a pigment material are provided between a transparent electrode and a counter electrode, to obtain a high conversion efficiency by improving the contact between the transparent electrode and the porous member of the oxide semiconductor. In order to achieve the above-mentioned object, in the solar battery according to the present invention where at least the electrolyte 6 and the porous member 3 of an oxide semiconductor retaining pigment material are provided between the transparent electrode 1 and the counter electrode 5, a finely-formed film 8 made of the same oxide semiconductor as the porous member 3 is further provided between the transparent electrode 1 and the porous member 3 of the oxide semiconductor.
Inventors: Hatano; Takuji (Suita, JP), Teramoto; Miyuki (Kobe, JP)
Assignee: Minolta Co., Ltd. (Osaka, JP)
Appl. No.: 09/283,950
Filed: April 1, 1999
----

Arrangement for solar cell driven display
United States Patent 6104372
A solar cell driven display is provided with battery backup, where the included components, solar cell and/or battery forms an integrated system based on porous titanium dioxide or other metal oxide films. The solar cell charges the battery and/or operates as a power source for the display. The solar cell and battery as display each include a pair of film electrodes on, for example, glass. They are interconnected by an electrolyte, which brings about charges between the paired electrodes. The solar cell is of a photoelectrochemical type and the battery of a rocking-chair type. By intercalation, for example, by lithium ions in the oxide film it is colored, for example, titanium dioxide becomes blue. Then it may simultaneously operate as a display portion but also as a portion in an electrochemical element of a battery. The solar cell may operate directly with the oxide as a photoactive electrode, titanium dioxide being active in the UV range, but the oxide may also be coloring matter sensitized to absorb light in the visible wavelength range. The display portion may also be provided with coloring matter, which upon reception or emission of electrons changes color.
Inventors: Lindquist; Sten-Eric (S-756 47 Uppsala, SE), Hagfeldt; Anders (S-741 41 Knivsta, SE)
Appl. No.: 08/894,081
Filed: October 31, 1997
PCT Filed: February 12, 1996
PCT No.: PCT/SE96/00177
371 Date: October 31, 1997
102(e) Date: October 31, 1997
PCT Pub. No.: WO96/25730
PCT Pub. Date: August 22, 1996
----

Photovoltaic cells
United States Patent 6075203
Improved photovoltaic cells utilizing for a semiconductor layer, titanium dioxide powders, consisting of porous particles, ranging in size from 0.1 to 10 microns (10.sup.-6 meters), and possess relatively high bulk density combined with high surface area.
Inventors: Wang; Ying (Wilmington, DE), Harrison; Larry Wayne (Bear, DE)
Assignee: E. I. du Pont Nemours and Company (Wilmington, DE)
Appl. No.: 09/080,653
Filed: May 18, 1998
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Electrochromic or photoelectrochromic device
United States Patent 6067184
Electrochromic and photoelectrochromic devices using nanocrystalline semiconductor electrodes with a high specific surface area and surface-absorbed electrochromic molecules are disclosed.
Inventors: Bonhote; Pierre (Neuchatel, CH), Walder; Lorenz (Osnabruck, DE), Gratzel; Michael (Saint-Sulpice, CH)
Assignee: Ecole Polytechnique Federale De Lausanne (CH)
Appl. No.: 09/142,733
Filed: October 13, 1998
PCT Filed: March 13, 1997
PCT No.: PCT/CH97/00104
371 Date: October 13, 1998
102(e) Date: October 13, 1998
PCT Pub. No.: WO97/35227
PCT Pub. Date: September 25, 1997
-----

TI02-coated fiber optic cable reactor
United States Patent 6051194
A photochemical reactor system employing an optical fibers in the form of a cable to transmit light to solid-supported TiO.sub.2 -containing photocatalyst is disclosed. Light energy is transmitted to TiO.sub.2 -containing particles, chemically anchored onto one or more quartz fiber cores, via radial refraction of light out of each fiber. TiO.sub.2 -containing coating layer minimizes the interfacial surface area of the quartz core and TiO.sub.2 -containing particles and operation with incident irradiation angles near 90.degree. enhance light propagation along the fibers. A maximum quantum efficiency of .phi.=1.1% for the oxidation of 4-chlorophenol was achieved. Fiber efficiency permits the light source to be separated from the photocatalyst.
Inventors: Peill; Nicola J. (Pasadena, CA), Hoffman; Michael R. (South Pasadena, CA)
Assignee: California Institute of Technology (Pasadena, CA)
Appl. No.: 09/158,412
Filed: September 22, 1998
-----

Photoelectric material using organic photosensitising dyes and manufacturing method thereof
United States Patent 6043428
A photoelectric material having high efficiency and superior durability is provided. The photoelectric material includes a semiconductor and a photosensitizing dye attached to the semiconductor, wherein the dye is a phthalocyanine derivative, a dioxazine derivative or an indigo derivative having at least one interlocking group and at least one hydrophobic group selected from the group consisting of monovalent substituted and unsubstituted aliphatic hydrocarbon groups and monovalent substituted and unsubstituted alicyclic hydrocarbon groups. The hydrophobic group is preferably an alkyl group with 3 to 12 carbon atoms. The interlocking group is a carboxyl group, a sulfonic acid group, phosphono group or the like. In manufacturing the photoelectric material, the dye is dissolved in a hydrophobic and/or aprotic solvent. In order to attach the dye to the semiconductor, the semiconductor is dipped in the dye solution.
Inventors: Han; Liyuan (Nara, JP), Obata; Takatsugu (Nara, JP), Inoue; Yuko (Nara, JP)
Assignee: Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha (Osaka, JP)
Appl. No.: 09/102,897
Filed: June 23, 1998
----

Optical semiconductor electrode, photoelectric converting device, and photoelectric conversion method
United States Patent 6028265
The photo-semiconducting electrode of the present invention comprises a semiconducting substrate, a chemically adsorbed film formed thereon composed of at least one compound selected from the compounds represented by the formulas: formulas (I) R.sup.1 M.sup.1 Y.sub.1.sub.3, (II) R.sup.1 R.sup.2 M.sup.1 Y.sup.1.sub.2, (III) R.sup.1 R.sup.2 R.sup.3 M.sup.1 Y.sup.1 and (IV) R.sup.1 --SH, respectively, and a dye which is fixed to the surface of the chemically adsorbed film and has a functional group capable of reacting with a halogen atom. Because of this, the photo-semiconductor electrode of the present invention is capable of efficiently absorbing solar light and performing energy conversion and superior in photoelectric conversion efficiency, stability and durability. In addition, it can be easily produced.
Inventors: Ono; Yoshiyuki (Minami-Ashigara, JP), Imai; Akira (Minami-Ashigara, JP), Hirose; Hidekazu (Minami-Ashigara, JP), Sato; Katsuhiro (Minami-Ashigara, JP)
Assignee: Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, JP)
Appl. No.: 08/988,399
Filed: December 10, 1997
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Process for manufacturing an electrode for an electrochemical device
United States Patent 6024807
The present invention aims at improving the catalytic activity of the metallic platinum deposited on the substrate of the counterelectrode (i.e., the cathode), so as to obtain a high value of the catalytic activity on the reduction reaction of triiodide to iodide essentially independent of the nature of the solvent used in the electrolyte. To that effect, the manufacturing process according to the invention is characterized in that said metallic platinum is deposited in the form of a plurality of spheroidal microcrystallite clusters each having a size of less than about 100 nanometers, dispersed over the surface of said substrate, and in that said deposited metallic platinum is submitted to a thermal treatment, carried out at a temperature in the range of about 375.degree. to 400 C., so as to enhance the catalytic properties of the platinum on the oxido-reduction of iodine and triiodide 3I.sub.2 +2e.fwdarw.2I.sub.3 in the redox system iodine/iodide.
Inventors: Pappas; Nicholas (Ecublens, CH), Gratzel; Michael (St-Sulpice, CH)
Assignee: Ecole Polutechnique Federale de Lausanne (Lausanne, CH)
Appl. No.: 09/043,618
Filed: March 24, 1998
PCT Filed: September 25, 1995
PCT No.: PCT/IB95/00786
371 Date: March 24, 1998
102(e) Date: March 24, 1998
PCT Pub. No.: WO97/12382
PCT Pub. Date: April 03, 1997
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Nanodisperse titanium dioxide, process for the production thereof and use thereof
United States Patent 5840111
The present invention relates to nanodisperse titanium dioxide, to a process for the production thereof and to the use thereof.
Inventors: Wiederhoft; Gerhard (Krefeld, DE), Butje; Kai (Duisburg, DE), Barenthien; Peter-Joachim (Duisburg, DE), Bodiger; Michael (Dormagen, DE), Alberts; Heinrich (Odenthal, DE)
Assignee: Bayer AG (DE)
Appl. No.: 08/744,421
Filed: November 8, 1996

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Method and equipment for producing a photochemical cell
United States Patent 5830597
Method for producing a photochemical cell having at least one carrier substrate and a plurality of layers disposed thereon includes performing a plurality of successive printing operations for applying the layers; a photochemical cell produced by the method; and equipment for performing the method.
Inventors: Hoffmann; Horst (Velbert, DE), Rodi; Anton (Leimen, DE)
Assignee: Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG (Heidelberg, DE)
Appl. No.: 08/632,083
Filed: April 15, 1996
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Phosphonated polypyridyl compounds and their complexes
United States Patent 5789592
A compound in metal-free or metal complex form of formula (1) to (3) in which R is hydrogen or C.sub.1-30 alkyl; X is hydrogen, halogen (preferably Cl or Br) or C.sub.1-30 alkyl.
Inventors: Gratzel; Michael (St-Sulpice, CH), Kohle; Oliver (Jouxtens, CH), Nazeeruddin; Mohammad K. (Ecublens, CH), Pechy; Peter (Lausanne, CH), Rotzinger; Francois P. (Chavornay, CH), Ruile; Stephan (Lausanne, CH), Zakeeruddin; Shaik Mohammad (Renens, CH)
Assignee: Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Lausanne, CH)
Appl. No.: 08/732,294
Filed: October 30, 1996
PCT Filed: May 02, 1994
PCT No.: PCT/IB94/00088
371 Date: October 30, 1996
102(e) Date: October 30, 1996
PCT Pub. No.: WO95/29924
PCT Pub. Date: November 09, 1995
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Photoelectrochemical cell and electrolyte for this cell
United States Patent 5728487
A cell including a photoanode consisting of at least one polycrystalline titanium dioxide layer on a conductive substrate, a counter-electrode and an electrolyte positioned between these electrodes, at least one of said electrodes being transparent or translucent. The electrolyte includes an oxidation-reduction system which is liquid at room temperature. The first species of the pair making up the oxidation-reduction system advantageously consists of an electrochemically active salt having a melting point below room temperature, and optionally being dissolved in at least one electrochemically inactive salt also having a melting point below room temperature.
Inventors: Gratzel; Michael (St-Sulpice, CH), Athanassov; Yordan (Prilly, CH), Bonhote; Pierre (Neuchatel, CH)
Assignee: Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Lausanne, CH)
Appl. No.: 08/669,275
Filed: June 28, 1996
PCT Filed: December 28, 1994
PCT No.: PCT/IB94/00445
371 Date: June 28, 1996
102(e) Date: June 28, 1996
PCT Pub. No.: WO95/18456
PCT Pub. Date: July 06, 1995
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Primary or secondary electrochemical generator having a nanoparticulate electrode
United States Patent 5569561
A high capacity primary or secondary electrochemical generator in which at least one electrode (4,5) is composed of nanocrystalline particles of an electrically active material, said particles being electrically connected together, either by sintering a colloidal film of said electrically active material, or by compressing a mixture containing said nanocrystalline particles in pulverised form.
Inventors: Exnar; Ivan (Itingen, CH), Graetzel; Michael (St-Sulpice, CH), Randin; Jean-Paul (Cortaillod, CH)
Assignee: Renata A.G. (Itingen, CH)
Appl. No.: 08/375,907
Filed: January 20, 1995
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Method for the manufacture of a photo-electrochemical cell and a cell made by this method
United States Patent 5525440
Method for the manufacture of a photoelectrochemical cell and a cell made by this method. A disadvantage of such cells (1) is the fact that their efficiency is not sufficient for economic use. It is therefore the aim of the invention to avoid this disadvantage. The method according to the invention makes it possible to produce a photoelectrochemical cell (1) comprising a porous electrode (4), the effective surface of which is by a factor 700 greater than that of electrodes of comparable size.
Inventors: Kay; Andreas G. (Lausanne, CH), Graetzel; Michael (St. Sulpice, CH), O'Regan; Brian (Seattle, WA)
Assignee: Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) (Lausanne, CH)
Appl. No.: 08/140,098
Filed: November 2, 1993
PCT Filed: March 09, 1993
PCT No.: PCT/CH93/00060
371 Date: November 02, 1993
102(e) Date: November 02, 1993
PCT Pub. No.: WO93/18532
PCT Pub. Date: September 16, 1993
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Photovoltaic cell
United States Patent 5482570
The invention relates to a photovoltaic cell (1) comprising a substrate (2) having a support face (4) having a first electrode (6) thereon and a second electrode (10) spaced from the first electrode (6) by a plurality of layers (14, 16; 14, 24, 16) including at least one layer (14) of a semiconducting material with an active junction (J) interface thereat, said active junction (J) having a developed surface area greater than its projected surface area.
Inventors: Saurer; Eric (Bevaix, CH), Gratzel; Michael (St-Sulpice, CH), Meyer; Tobias (Fechy, CH)
Assignee: Asulab S.A. (Bienne, CH)
Appl. No.: 08/204,395
Filed: June 22, 1994
PCT Filed: July 24, 1993
PCT No.: PCT/EP93/01980
371 Date: June 22, 1994
102(e) Date: June 22, 1994
PCT Pub. No.: WO94/03930
PCT Pub. Date: February 17, 1994
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Transparent regenerating photoelectrochemical cell
United States Patent 5441827
A regenerating photoelectrochemical cell (1) is disclosed having a first transparent substrate (2) which has thereon a first transparent electrode (6), a second transparent substrate (4) which has thereon a second transparent electrode (8) on which is deposited a first layer (10) of a photoelectrochemically active semiconductor oxide in the form of a porous nanostructure of sintered colloidal particles, the substrates (2, 4) being so disposed in relation to one another as to define a space filled with electrolyte (16), said electrolyte (16) impregnating the said porous structure in a manner such that it is in contact on the one hand with the first transparent electrode (6) disposed on the first transparent substrate (2) and on the other hand with the second transparent electrode (8) disposed on the second transparent substrate (4), and said second transparent substrate also having a second compact continuous semiconductor oxide layer (20) extending between the second transparent electrode (8) and the first semiconductor oxide layer (10).
Inventors: Gratzel; Michael (St-Sulpice, CH), Saurer; Eric (Bevaix, CH)
Assignee: Asulab S.A. (Bienne, CH)
Appl. No.: 08/142,407
Filed: December 30, 1993
PCT Filed: March 12, 1993
PCT No.: PCT/CH93/00068
371 Date: December 30, 1993
102(e) Date: December 30, 1993
PCT Pub. No.: WO93/19479
PCT Pub. Date: September 30, 1993
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Bi-pyridyl-rumetal complexes
United States Patent 543057
A compound of formula (I): (X).sub.n RuLL.sub.1 where n is 1 or 2, preferably 2, and in which Ru is ruthenium; each X independently is selected from Cl, SCN, H.sub.2 O, Br, I, CN and SeCN and L is a ligand of formulae (a) to (g) and L.sub.1 is selected from a ligand of formulae (a) to (c) where each R independently is selected from OH, hydrogen, C.sub.1-20 alkyl, --OR.sub.a or --N(R.sub.a).sub.2 and each R.sub.a independently is hydrogen or C.sub.1-4 alkyl.
Inventors: Graetzel; Michael (St-Sulpice, CH), Nazeeruddin; Mohammad K. (Chavannes, CH)
Assignee: Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, (EPFL) (CH)
Appl. No.: 08/211,824
Filed: April 20, 1994
PCT Filed: August 19, 1993
PCT No.: PCT/EP93/02221
371 Date: April 20, 1994
102(e) Date: April 20, 1994
PCT Pub. No.: WO94/04497
PCT Pub. Date: March 03, 1994

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Transparent regenerating photoelectrochemical cell
United States Patent 5441827
A regenerating photoelectrochemical cell (1) is disclosed having a first transparent substrate (2) which has thereon a first transparent electrode (6), a second transparent substrate (4) which has thereon a second transparent electrode (8) on which is deposited a first layer (10) of a photoelectrochemically active semiconductor oxide in the form of a porous nanostructure of sintered colloidal particles, the substrates (2, 4) being so disposed in relation to one another as to define a space filled with electrolyte (16), said electrolyte (16) impregnating the said porous structure in a manner such that it is in contact on the one hand with the first transparent electrode (6) disposed on the first transparent substrate (2) and on the other hand with the second transparent electrode (8) disposed on the second transparent substrate (4), and said second transparent substrate also having a second compact continuous semiconductor oxide layer (20) extending between the second transparent electrode (8) and the first semiconductor oxide layer (10).
Inventors: Gratzel; Michael (St-Sulpice, CH), Saurer; Eric (Bevaix, CH)
Assignee: Asulab S.A. (Bienne, CH)
Appl. No.: 08/142,407
Filed: December 30, 1993
PCT Filed: March 12, 1993
PCT No.: PCT/CH93/00068
371 Date: December 30, 1993
102(e) Date: December 30, 1993
PCT Pub. No.: WO93/19479
PCT Pub. Date: September 30, 1993
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Horological piece comprising a photovoltaic cell having a photelectrochemical region
United States Patent 5438556
The present invention provides a horological piece (P) comprising an energy source having at least one photovoltaic cell (1) capable of transforming luminous radiation into an electrical current. This photovoltaic cell includes an active surface (F) sensitive to luminous radiation. A horometrical movement (56) is supplied by the energy source and is capable of supplying time keeping information. A display (58) is adapted to receive the time keeping information supplied by the horometrical movement (56) and displays this information so that it is readable by a user. The active surface (F) of the photovoltaic cell (1) has at least one transparent region which at least partially covers the display (58). The invention may be applied to horological pieces without portable power sources, such as a battery.
Inventors: Dinger; Rudolf (St-Aubin, CH), Saurer; Eric (Bevaix, CH), Graetzel; Michael (St-Sulpice, CH)
Assignee: Asulab S.A. (Bienne, CH)
Appl. No.: 08/142,409
Filed: December 8, 1993
PCT Filed: March 24, 1993
PCT No.: PCT/CH93/00083
371 Date: December 08, 1993
102(e) Date: December 08, 1993
PCT Pub. No.: WO93/19405
PCT Pub. Date: September 30, 1993

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Transition metal complexes having 2,2'-bipyridine ligands substituted by at least one ammonium alkyl radical
United States Patent 5410059
Complexes of the general formula I ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2 and R.sub.3, which may be the same or different, each represent a straight or branched alkyl radical having 1 to 5 carbon atoms or together with the adjacent nitrogen atom a heterocyclic radical having 5 to 7 carbon atoms; "alk" represents a straight or branched alkylene radical having 1 to 5 carbon atoms; R.sub.4 to R.sub.8, which may be the same or different, represent hydrogen, or a hydroxy, alkoxy, aryloxy or primary secondary or tertiary amino group, or the group -alk-N.sup.+ (R.sub.1 R.sub.2 R.sub.3) wherein "alk", R.sub.1, R.sub.2 and R.sub.3 have the meanings given above; M represents a transition metal such as Fe, Ru or Os; X represents an anion and n is an integer corresponding to the number of positive charges of the complex.
Inventors: Fraser; David (Nyon, CH), Zakeeruddin; Shaik M. (Renens, CH), Graetzel; Michael (Renens, CH)
Assignee: Asulab S.A. (Bienne, CH)
Appl. No.: 08/166,977
Filed: December 14, 1993
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Mono, bis or tris(substituted 2,2'-bipyridine) iron, ruthenium, osmium or vanadium complexes and their methods of preparation
United States Patent 5393903
Mono, bis and tris(substituted 2,2'-bipyridine) complexes of iron, ruthenium, osmium or vanadium are described wherein the bipyridine is substituted by a hydroxy or alkoxy group, or a primary, secondary or tertiary amine group.
Inventors: Gratzel; Michael (St-Sulpice, CH), Fraser; David (Vevey, CH), Zakeeruddin; Shaik M. (Renens, CH), Nazeeruddin; Mohammed K. (Chavannes, CH)
Assignee: Asulab S.A. (Bienne, CH)
Appl. No.: 07/949,485
Filed: October 19, 1992
PCT Filed: February 19, 1992
PCT No.: PCT/CH92/00033
371 Date: October 19, 1992
102(e) Date: October 19, 1992
PCT Pub. No.: WO92/14741
PCT Pub. Date: September 03, 1992
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Sensor for measuring the amount of a component in solution
United States Patent 5378628
A sensor for measuring the amount of a component in solution is disclosed. The sensor has a measuring electrode with at least one current collector, electrically connected to one of the electrical contacts and coated with a mixture comprising at least one oxidation-reduction enzyme specific to said component and at least one mediator transferring the electrons between said enzyme and said current collector wherein the mediator is a transition metal complex with at least one bipyridine, terpyridine or phenanthroline ligand substituted by at least one electron donor group. This sensor is particularly useful in the detection of glucose.
Inventors: Gratzel; Michael (St-Sulpice, CH), Fraser; David (Vevey, CH), Zakeeruddin; Shaik M. (Renens, CH), Randin; Jean-Paul (Cortaillod, CH), Frenkel; Erik J. (Neuchatel, CH)
Assignee: Asulab, S.A. (Bienne, CH)
Appl. No.: 07/938,219
Filed: October 19, 1992
PCT Filed: February 19, 1992
PCT No.: PCT/CH92/00034
371 Date: October 19, 1992
102(e) Date: October 19, 1992
PCT Pub. No.: WO92/14836
PCT Pub. Date: September 03, 1992
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Photovoltaic cells
United States Patent 5350644
A photovoltaic cell comprising a light transmitting electrically conductive layer deposited on a glass plate or a transparent polymer sheet to which a series of titanium dioxide layers have been applied, in which at leash the last titanium dioxide layer (optionally also the second to last and third to last layer) are doped with a metal ion which is selected from a divalent or trivalent metal.
Inventors: Graetzel; Michael (St. Sulpice, CH), Nazeeruddin; Mohammad K. (Tavannes, CH), O'Regan; Brian (Vevey, CH)
Assignee: Ecole Polytechnique, Federale de Lausanne (Lausanne, CH)
Appl. No.: 07/941,073
Filed: October 15, 1992
PCT Filed: April 17, 1991
PCT No.: PCT/EP91/00734
371 Date: October 15, 1992
102(e) Date: October 15, 1992
PCT Pub. No.: WO91/16719
PCT Pub. Date: October 31, 1991
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Molecular water oxidation catalyst
United States Patent 522364
A dimeric composition of the formula: ##STR1## wherein L', L", L'", and L"" are each a bidentate ligand having at least one functional substituent, the ligand selected from bipyridine, phenanthroline, 2-phenylpyridine, bipyrimidine, and bipyrazyl and the functional substituent selected from carboxylic acid, ester, amide, halogenide, anhydride, acyl ketone, alkyl ketone, acid chloride, sulfonic acid, phosphonic acid, and nitro and nitroso groups. An electrochemical oxidation process for the production of the above functionally substituted bidentate ligand diaqua oxo-bridged ruthenium dimers and their use as water oxidation catalysts is described.
Inventors: Gratzel; Michael (St. Sulpice, CH), Munavalli; Shekhar (Bel Air, MD), Pern; Fu-Jann (Lakewood, CO), Frank; Arthur J. (Lakewood, CO)
Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States (Washington, DC)
Appl. No.: 07/256,912
Filed: October 12, 1988
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Photo-electrochemical cell and process of making same
United States Patent 5084365
The regenerative photo-electrochemical cell comprises a polycrystalline metal oxide semiconductor layer having a substantially monomolecular chromophore layer in a surface zone. The surface of the metal oxide semiconductor layer has a roughness factor of more than 20, preferably more than 200. Photo-electrochemical cells having such metal oxide semiconductors have good monochromatic efficiency using redox systems with iodides or bromides.
Inventors: Gratzel; Michael (CH-1050 Sts. Sulpice, CH), Liska; Paul (CH1018 Lausanne, CH)
Appl. No.: 07/475,023
Filed: February 5, 1990
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Photo-electrochemical cell
United States Patent 4927721
The regenerative photo-electrochemical cell comprises a polycrystalline metal oxide semiconductor layer having a substantially monomolecular chromophore layer in a surface zone. The surface of the metal oxide semiconductor layer has a roughness factor of more than 20, preferably more than 200. Photo-electrochemical cells having such metal oxide semiconductors have good monochromatic efficiency using redox systems with iodides or bromides.
Inventors: Gratzel; Michael (Sts. Sulpica, CH), Liska; Paul (Lausanne, CH)
Appl. No.: 07/255,052
Filed: October 7, 1988
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Photoelectrochemical system and a method of using the same
United States Patent 4381978
A photoelectrochemical system for conducting endoergic chemical processes driven by light energy. This system consists essentially of an illuminated halfcell and a darkened halfcell joined via electrodes and an external circuit to allow for the transport of electrons. Also, the said halfcells are joined by an ion conducting junction so as to allow for the transport of ions. The illuminated halfcell contains a photosensitizer, an electron relay substance and a catalyst, and the darkened halfcell may contain a second electron relay and a catalyst. Illumination with visible light results in the simultaneous and separate generation of oxidation and reduction products.
Inventors: Gratzel; Michael (Corsy, CH), Kiwi; John (Preverenges, CH), Kalyanasundaram; Kuppuswamy (Chavannes, CH), Philp; John (Longlevens, GB2)
Assignee: Engelhard Corporation (Iselin, NJ)
Appl. No.: 06/292,966
Filed: August 14, 1981
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